This chapter contains information about functions for performing mathematical computations, such as trigonometric functions. Most of these functions have prototypes declared in the header file math.h. The complex-valued functions are defined in complex.h.
All mathematical functions which take a floating-point argument
have three variants, one each for
long double arguments. The
double versions are mostly
defined in ISO C89. The
versions are from the numeric extensions to C included in ISO C99.
Which of the three versions of a function should be used depends on the
situation. For most calculations, the
float functions are the
fastest. On the other hand, the
long double functions have the
double is somewhere in between. It is
usually wise to pick the narrowest type that can accommodate your data.
Not all machines have a distinct
long double type; it may be the
The GNU C Library also provides
_FloatNx types. These types are defined in ISO/IEC TS 18661-3, which extends ISO C and defines floating-point types that
are not machine-dependent. When such a type, such as
is supported by the GNU C Library, extra variants for most of the mathematical
functions provided for
double are also provided for the supported type. Throughout this
_FloatNx variants of
these functions are described along with the
long double variants and they come from
ISO/IEC TS 18661-3, unless explicitly stated otherwise.
_FloatNx types is
It is also provided for
powerpc64le (PowerPC 64-bits little-endian), x86_64, x86, ia64,
aarch64, alpha, mips64, riscv, s390 and sparc.
|• Mathematical Constants:||Precise numeric values for often-used constants.|
|• Trig Functions:||Sine, cosine, tangent, and friends.|
|• Inverse Trig Functions:||Arcsine, arccosine, etc.|
|• Exponents and Logarithms:||Also pow and sqrt.|
|• Hyperbolic Functions:||sinh, cosh, tanh, etc.|
|• Special Functions:||Bessel, gamma, erf.|
|• Errors in Math Functions:||Known Maximum Errors in Math Functions.|
|• Pseudo-Random Numbers:||Functions for generating pseudo-random numbers.|
|• FP Function Optimizations:||Fast code or small code.|